“TA’LIM SIFATINI OSHIRISH: MUAMMO, YECHIM VA ISTIQBOL” respublika ilmiy-amaliy konferensiyasida ishtirok etgani uchun 10-son IMIning ingliz tili fani o’qituvchisi Tuliyeva Mavluda sertifikat bilan taqdirlandi.
Khorezm region Yangibazar district
Specialized- boarding school № 10
The peculiarities of communicative language teaching method
Annotation: This article deals with peculiarities of communicative language teaching method in English teaching and learning.
Key words: communicative approach, foreign language teaching, EFL contexts, teaching model
If the target of foreign language teaching is to use the language, communicative language teaching seems to be an ideal teaching model. The goal of teaching with this method is to use the language as a medium of communication. The application of the communicative approach in teaching English as a foreign language, however is associated with some problems that can cause the method turn out not to be so much successful and the learning outcome not to be efficient enough.
In the field of second language acquisition, there are many theories about the most effective way for language learners to acquire new language forms. Recently more language teachers have noticed the failure of form focusing approach in developing learners’ communicative ability in real-life situations and have shifted to adopt the communicative language teaching approach. The CLT approach highlights learners’ communicative competence, which is defined as learners’ ability to efficiently express what they mean in the target language and successfully achieve communications in real-life situations. In order to do so learners not only need to acquire the linguistic but pragmatic knowledge of the target language.
The rationale of the CLT approach is that teacher should act as a facilitator to create a student centered classroom and engage learners in authentic-like and meaningful communications with the goal to increase comprehensible language input for learners and expect them to generate more output. Teachers, therefore, need to design learning tasks with clear objectives and consider what learning task or materials are to benefit students’ acquisition of both the target linguistic and pragmatic knowledge.
The application of communicative language teaching to English as a foreign language context has recently been debated extensively. Although the CLT approach attempts to involve learners in more authentic and interactive learning tasks that promote both comprehensible input and learners’ output, teachers still find it difficult and challenging to adopt the approach and maximize the learning, especially in EFL classrooms.
Since the emergence of CLT the only group of people having difficulty using it are the teachers. Students are also to be taken into account in this case. An important question to ask is to do EFL students need to speak English and communicate in this language. In a setting where English is a foreign language, students usually learn with low intrinsic motivation; English may be deemed irrelevant with students needs because the language is not part of their every day life. On the other hand, in a setting where English is a second language, students have high intrinsic motivation because the language is a part of every day life. By living in a second language environment, students have a higher chance to use the language whether to communicate each other or for professional needs, as in searching for a job. Without an English- speaking environment, motivation becomes more a product of curricular demands, pressure from exams, and academic and professional success, instead of demand for communication. One of the most difficult problems in making classroom learning communicative is the absence of native speakers.
The impact of a test on teaching and learning is commonly referred to as the washback effect. The structure of University Enterance Exam plays a very significant role in determining the teaching methodology and materials used in EFL contexts. EFL teachers are under the pressure of UEE to change the way they teach in the classroom. For instance UEE values grammatical learning above language knowledge and communication negatively affects the CLT English course. In fact, UEE has a determining role in the whole program. The most important thing in high school education is to help students pass the University Enterance exam. So teachers are obliged to emphasize grammatical and reading skills, rather than communication.
One of the implementation problems of CLT is that the approach is not always appropriate with the socio cultural context in which it is used. Culture is often considered as a barrier in creating a communicative form of English learning in EFL contexts. Most scientists claim that an innovative method has a far better chance of being accepted if it can be seen to be compatible with existing values and practices. For example the high considerateness nature of Asian communicative patterns where students are encouraged to interrupt, must respond positively, and speak in a flat intonation , also make it less likely for communicative interactions to occur in language learning.
Teachers have a constructive role in the development of better curricula. The precondition for this effective participation is to have dynamic teacher training courses which would help teachers learn the “how” of change in progress. Awareness raising is an important issue in any process of change or innovation. Teacher training courses have an important role in creating situation to facilitate reflection and contemplation for the teachers as important agents of change. Teachers in many EFL classes are typically not required to have any special TESOL certification or training in linguistics. In-service teacher training courses along with conferences, workshops and seminars can be quite effective in promoting the awareness of teachers. Through involving teachers in teaching practice activities, they could learn the realities directly from the context.
The CLT approach attempts to involve learners in more authentic and interactive learning tasks that promote both comprehensible input and learners’ language output. Students develop their language proficiency by having opportunities to produce comprehensible output. Classroom activities in which students work together in pairs or small groups to complete some task allow for more student-generated talk. However, creating the right kind of interaction for acquisition constitutes a major challenge for teachers. From among the learners who participate in the interaction, only some of them engage in meaning negotiations. They only simply listen.
One of the outcomes of the CLT implementation that may not be welcomed by many EFL teachers is that student-centered classrooms may appear “chaotic”. However since the learning process, or the construction of meaning, requires interaction with others, it will inevitably result in some “noise”. A classroom during a communicative activity is far from quiet, however.
In order to make best solution for these issues English EFL teachers presently employed should be given the opportunity to improve their skills. In order for these teachers to make progress, they must be given what they need to make it work. Schools will have to make serious commitments toward giving teachers the time and opportunity to attend training regularly, if possible, study and exchange ideas abroad. In- service teacher training courses along with conferences and workshops can greatly help EFL teachers to deal with the innovation and change of methodology.
The majority of EFL teachers faced with the problems and contradictions when adopting CLT as it is a methodology mainly developed for western countries. Despite its initial claim to be appropriate an approach for EFL situation, CLT seems to be more suitable for ESL situations. EFL countries should strive to establish their own research contingents and encourage method specialists and classroom teachers to develop language teaching methods that take into account the political, economic, social and cultural factors’ and most important at all.
Taking all things into consideration teaching process should be natural and teachers should try to use up-to-dated methods in order to be suitable for nowadays demands. Teachers regularly work on themselves and to create interesting classroom teaching. In using CLT modern technologies are best assistants for achieving main purposes. Currently in our country it is observed that there are huge improvements in teaching foreign languages according to President’s Decree on improving teaching foreign languages №1875. According to modern teaching teachers should use up-to-dated approaches, methods in their teaching process. CLT acts key role in making incredible outcomes. Lessons should be in English speaking atmosphere and student-centered, students should feel themselves free, learn everything actively. Teachers must give them a chance to express their abilities.
- Sano, M. Harmer, 2001. The practice of English Language Teaching. Lomh Man publication.
- Richards, J.C Rodgers, 2010, Approaches and methods in language teaching. New York Cambridge University Press.
- Savignon S.J. 2007 Communicative Language Teaching for the 21st Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
- Rogers,Everett 2016 Communication of innovation: a cross-cultural approach. Collier-Macmillian.
- www.busyteacher.org.com. ; www.nonstopenglish.com. and others.